be moral, in a philosophical sense, is to be able to find a means of satisfying
your desires without infriging the rights of others to satisfy theirs.
In this sense, therefore, morality is primarily a socio-materialistic
concept, in so far as its object is the equal distribution of pleasure.
The religious concept of morality
is, however, diametrically opposed to this. To be religiously moral is
to ex rcise self-control by curbing your desires and restraining your
passion in order to attain your exalted tatus as a human being worthy
of inheriting the Kingdom of God, and indeed, the whole world that has
been put in your service. You could never be worthy of being a master
of this world until you have
suceeded in mastering your own "self', that is, being fully in charge
of your inner kingdom.
Religious morality in this sense
requires progress from the lower level of self-slavishness (being a slave
to the self) to the higher level of being closer to God. Rather than a
call for a better distribution of pleasure morality is, in this sense,
a call for breading the shackles of pleasure.
two approaches, the philosophical and the religious, are therefore totally
different and they produce totaly different human beings.
Materialistic philosophy, furthermore,
has produced a materialistic man who seeks immediate pleasure, an imediate
materialistic reward for all human activity -hence his 'temporal' orientation,
that is to say, his approach to reality in terms of the 'pleasure of the
moment', and what time has to offer. But moment are by definition transitory
and time perpetually flies, so that this kind of man inevitably feels
he is be ng left behind, and, paradoxically, with a lump in his throat.
The greater the fulfilment of his desires, he greedier and hungrier they
get. He bets on time, with no assets for the future; for as a moral h
man being, he expects death to come, unexpectedly; and, as the fleeting
moments give him satisfaction only to take it away from him, he lives
in anxiety, pulled apart by conflicting desires, until death comes in
A believer has a different psychological
make-up, however, and a different sense of morality based on a diff rent
human vision. He sees worldly pleasures for what they are transitory and,
in a very real sense, ortal. They constitute a test which, if passed,
should admit him to higher ranks beyond this world. I need, the whole
world is nothing but a path of transition from this world to the other,
with God as the only security for such a trip. God is the only ruler who
reigns supreme, and who determines His weal and woe. If all people decide
to profit or do harm to him, they could not achieve anything that was
not preo dained, he believes, and that is why he is neither overjoyed
by material gain, nor over- dismaye by material loss. If things do not
go his way he would say to himself:
MAY HATE A THING, WHICH IS REALLY GOOD FOR YOU, AND YOU MAY LOVE A THING
WHICH IS REALLY BAD FOR YOU: GOD KNOWS AND YOU KNOW NOT. (Quran, 5.2:
fight, audaciously, never flinching from death, chanting
YOU MAY BE, DEATH WILL OVERTAKE YOU, THOUGH YOU
SHOULD BE IN RAISED-UPTOWERS. Quran, 5.4 : V.78)
NOT GIVEN TO ANY SOUL TO DIE, SAVE BY THE LEAVE OF GOD, AT AN APPOINTED
TIME. (Quran, 5.3: V.145)
envies nor covets the property of anybody; indeed, he pities the 'multitude
who walk in darkness', He listens to the whispers of his heart:
IT NOT DELUDE THEE, THAT THE UNBELIEVERS GO TO AND FRO IN THE LAND; A
LITTLE ENJOYMENT, THEN THEIR REFUGE IS GEHENNAM, AN EVIL ABODE .
(Quran, 5.3: V.196)
THEM INDULGENCE ONLY THAT THEY MAY INCREASE IN SIN .
(Quran, 5.3: V. 178)
BEFALLS IN THE EARTH OR IN YOURSELVES, BUT IT IS IN A BOOK, BEFORE WE
CREATE IT; THAT IS EASY FOR GOD: THAT YOU MAY NOT GRIEVE FOR WHAT ESCAPES
YOU, NOR REJOICE IN WHAT HAS COME TO YOU; GOD LOVES NOT ANY MAN PROUD
AND BOASTFUL . (Quran, 5.57:V.22)
NAUGHT SHALL VISIT US BUT WHAT GOD HAS PRESCRIBED FOR US . (Quran, 5.9:
V. 51 )
verses combine to inspire the believer with a serene mood, and perfect
peace of mind:
REMEMBRANCE ARE AT REST THE HEARTS OF THOSE WHO BELIEVE . (Quran, 5.13:V.28)
Such a believer finds ample recompense for the conquered
desires, warmth in his heart, and the sweet sense of inner freedom and
Believing in one God makes for inner unity: he receives
inspiration from a single source; he fears one authority , hopes to please
one power, and seeks to establish a permanent relationship with one ideal.
Such, unity of source and target has a unifying effect on the soul, His
character develops internal harmony which precludes all possibility of
conflict or discord within. .
This is the clue to Ouranic psychology: it has immediate
ethical and hebavioristic implications which contrast shapy with Freudian
psychology. Indeed, what is it that Freud has taught?
Freud believes that guilt is a kind of disease, that
repentence is regression, that control of desires is repression, that
regret is the outcome of a complex, and that forbearance is apathy.
Freud looked at all action in terms of behaviour and
motive, in disregard of the real intention and sinceri .He could only
see the animal inside man, and dealt with human motivation within the
framework of base appetites and lust. He believed that all dreams could
be interpreted in this way: whatever was round, such as a cave, a ditch,
a hole or a ring, stood for the female; whileas anything upright, such
as a pen, a sword, a tower, a stick (and even a serpent) stood for the
male; and all movement, such as walking, running, climbing, flying and
swimming, stood for the sexual act.
He looked on the soul as completely isolated from its
metaphysical sources but he could not recognize he devil's temptation,
angelic whispers, or divine afflatus.
Of a child's attachment to his mother, he spun out
an Oedipus complex an unconscious desire to kill the ated father, which
assumes in the child theconscious behavitur oe fiatterig him and endeavourint
to ape him. In the world of adults, however, this is compensated for by
worship of the heavenly father, which, according to Freud, represents
a redemption of their unconscious desire to kill the earthly father.
Freud believed that human character assumed its final
shape in the first five years of one's life; subseq ently it became the
destiny of the individual, and all psychiatry could do, would be in the
nature of proving sedatives or helping the repressed feelings and desires
to have an outlet. Freud could not see, in short, any other areas of the
soul except the base, animalistic region.
The chief weakness of Freudian
psychology is, however, its reluctance to recognize the possibility of
change Ouranic psychology establishes this as a norm; cure is always possible
because it involves a restoration of the original soundness of the human
soul, the removal of extraneous element such as hate, m lice, envy, lust
According to the Ouran, there
are many levels of the human spirit apart from the low, animalistic one:
the soul has seven 'grades' which proceed from temptation and expiation,
to inspiration, and peace, to harmony and content, and finally, to perfection.
Man can proceed from one grade to the next, higher and higher still, through
obedience to God and genuine worship. Moderation has been established
by the Quran as the ideal mode of behaviour.
We are met, everywhere, by instructive
examples of the change within the soul from darkness to light, even instantly,
by God's guidance. A prominent example was that of Omar Ibn-al-Khattab
who, during the ife of the Prophet, (pbuh) instantly changed from a life
of pagan cruelty and iniquity to one of exemplary and perfect justice.
STRIPPED AWAY ALL RANCOUR THAT IS IN THEIR BREASTS . (Quran, 5.15:
is the kind of instant psychological cure which we learn from the Ouran
and which is not to be found in any other secular discipline.